Link to Virology explainers, Virologists and to the outer, more accessible edges of the science.  Assembled and organized for my own use. If these help you, great..


Ed Rybicki   @edrybicki

Björn Meyer  @_b_meyer

Trevor Bedford   @trvrb     Bedford Lab

Isabella Eckerle, MD   @EckerleIsabella

Dr. Zoë Hyde   @DrZoeHyde 

Dr. Krutika Kuppalli   @KrutikaKuppalli

Ian M. Mackay, PhD   @MackayIM

Dr. Angela Rasmussen   @angie_rasmussen

Dr Emma Hodcraft   @firefoxx66


Prof. Akiko Iwasaki   @VirusesImmunity

Marion Koopmans   @MarionKoopmans 

Brian Wasik   @BrianRWasik 

Lauring Lab   @LauringLab

Bloom Lab   @jbloom_lab

Tyler Starr   @tylernstarr

Marija Backovic   @marija_backovic

Dr. Arinjay Banerjee   @sci_questions


TweetOfCovid 2ndstudydemonstratingairborneviability

4/23/2021   Isolation of SARS-CoV-2 from the air in a car driven by a COVID patient with mild illness, by John A. Lednicky, Michael Lauzardo Md.,  M. Alam, Maha A. Elbadry, Caroline J. Stephenson, Julia C. Gibson, J. Glenn Morris Jr., International Journal of Infectious Diseases

  • SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from air in a car driven by a COVID patient.
  • Virus was cultured from samples with a particle range of 0.25 to 0.50 μm.
  • A substantial component of transmission risk appears to be via aerosolized virus.


We used a Sioutas personal cascade impactor sampler (PCIS) to screen for SARS-CoV-2 in a car driven by a COVID-19 patient. The patient, who had only mild illness without fever or cough and was not wearing a mask, drove the car for 15 minutes with the air conditioning turned on and windows closed. The PCIS was clipped to the sun-visor above the front passenger seat and was retrieved from the car two hours after completion of the drive.


SARS-CoV-2 was detectable at all PCIS stages by PCR and was cultured from the section of the sampler collecting particles in the 0.25 to 0.50 μm size range.



Our data highlight the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission by minimally symptomatic persons in the closed space inside of a car and suggest that a substantial component of that risk is via aerosolized virus.


3/11/2021   mRNA vaccine protects monkeys against HIV-like virus, by Liz Highleyman, nam/aidsmap

The same messenger RNA (mRNA) approach used for the highly effective Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines also shows promise for protection against HIV, according to a presentation this week at the virtual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections.


Despite more than three decades of research, scientists have had little success developing vaccines to prevent HIV. To date, only one vaccine regimen – a canarypox vector primer followed by a gp120 protein booster – has demonstrated partial protection in human studies; however, it was not effective in a recent large trial.


Dr Peng Zhang of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and colleagues, in collaboration with Moderna, are taking a different approach. The investigators designed a vaccine regimen that introduces mRNA into a cell and instructs it to make the outer, envelope proteins of three different subtypes of HIV, plus the structural gag protein from SIV, HIV's simian cousin. The cells then assemble these proteins to make virus-like particles that trigger an immune response. These particles are not viruses because they have no genetic material of their own and cannot reproduce – but they look like viruses to the immune system.

3/2/2021   Study looks at the impact of Stabilising SARS-Cov-2 Spike through “PP” mutations and Cleavage site removal. Combination of PP and Cleavage site removal (as seen in J&J/Novavax vaccine) was beneficial, “PP” mutation alone (as seen in Pfizer/Moderna) was not, COVID Data Review

3/2/2021   Introduction of Two Prolines and Removal of the Polybasic Cleavage Site Lead to Higher Efficacy of a Recombinant Spike-Based SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in the Mouse Model, by Fatima Amanat, Shirin Strohmeier, Raveen Rathnasinghe, Michael Schotsaert, Lynda Coughlan, Adolfo García-Sastre, Florian Krammer, American Society for Microbiology

3/2/2021   SARS-CoV-2 RBD-Tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine induces a strong neutralizing immunity in preclinical studies, [by dozens of scientists], bioRxiv

2/23/2021   "We have completely mapped #SARS_CoV_2 mutations that escape binding by LY-CoV555 (antibody that forms the basis for Eli Lilly's bamlanivimab) both alone & in cocktail with LY-CoV016 in a new study," Bloom Lab

2/22/2021   Complete map of SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutations that escape the monoclonal antibody LY-CoV555 and its cocktail with LY-CoV016, by Tyler N. Starr,  Allison J. Greaney,  Adam S. Dingens, Jesse D. Bloom, bioRxiv


TweetOfBloomLab bamlanivimabEscapeMutations

The dynamics of adaptation on correlated fitness landscapes, by Sergey Kryazhimskiya, Gašper Tkacikˇ and Joshua B. Plotkina, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

2021-01-31   NYC Reveals White New Yorkers Have Received Lion's Share Of COVID-19 Vaccine Doses, by Sydney Pereira, Jake Dobkin and Nsikan Akpan, the Gothamist

Three white residents receive a COVID-19 vaccine for every Black or Latino person in the city, according to new demographic data released by the mayor’s office on Sunday.

2021-01-29   Virus expert Trevor Bedford warns of "convergent evolution" amid COVID-19 mutations, Margaret Brennan, Face the Nation

2021-01-27   We Cannot Rely Exclusively on Vaccines to End the Pandemic, Angela Rasmussen, Slate

2021/01/21  mRNA Vaccines: What Happens, Derek Lowe, Sciencemag

2021/01/02   Putting PCR into real-time, Ian M Mackay, PhD, Virology Down Under

2020/12/28   The mechanics of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)…a primer, Ian M Mackay, PhD

2020/10/24   The Swiss Cheese Respiratory Virus Pandemic Defence, Mackay


2020/10/23   Virology, transmission, and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, Cevik, Kuppalli and Kindrachuk, BMJ